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Diabetes is a chronic condition that is triggered when the body loses its ability to produce enough insulin or to use it effectively. 1 Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas that allows glucose from food to pass into the body's cells, where it is converted into energy for muscles and tissues to function. As a result, a person with diabetes does not absorb glucose properly, so glucose remains circulating in the blood (hyperglycemia) and damaging tissues over time. This deterioration causes potentially lethal health complications. There are three main types of diabetes:  type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 

DIABETES TYPE 1:Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction, in which the body's defense system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. As a result, the body stops producing the insulin it needs. People with type 1 diabetes die if they don't have insulin. The disease can affect people of any age, but it usually appears in children or young adults. People with this form of diabetes need daily insulin injections in order to control their blood glucose levels. 

Type 1 diabetes often develops suddenly and may include symptoms such as:abnormal thirst and dry mouth, frequent urination, extreme tiredness/lack of energy, constant appetite, sudden weight loss, slow wound healing, recurrent infections, blurred vision.

TYPE 2 DIABETES: Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. It usually appears in adults, but there are more and more cases in children and adolescents. In type 2 diabetes, the body can produce insulin but either not enough or the body does not respond to its effects, causing a buildup of glucose in the blood. People with type 2 diabetes may spend a long time unaware of their disease because symptoms may take years to appear or be recognized, during which time the body deteriorates due to excess blood glucose. Many people are diagnosed only when diabetic complications become apparent (see Diabetic Complications). Although the reasons for developing type 2 diabetes are not yet known, there are several important risk factors. These are:obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, older age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, inadequate nutrition during pregnancy, affecting the developing childIn contrast to people with type 1 diabetes, most people with type 2 diabetes do not usually need daily doses of insulin to survive. However, to control the condition, insulin may be prescribed along with oral medication, a healthy diet, and increased physical activity.

GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUSA woman is said to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when she is first diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy. When a woman develops diabetes during pregnancy, it usually occurs at a late stage and arises because the body cannot produce and use enough insulin needed for pregnancy. Since gestational diabetes usually develops late in pregnancy, the baby is already well formed, although it continues to grow. The risk to the baby is therefore lower than those whose mothers have type 1 or type 2 diabetes before pregnancy. However, women with GDM should also monitor their blood glucose levels to minimize risks to the baby. This can usually be done through a healthy diet, although insulin or oral medication may also be necessary. The mother's gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery. However, women who have had GDM are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes over time. Babies born to mothers with GDM are also at increased risk of obesity and developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

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